EkoLakay Toilets
Leonora Baumann


Publications by SOIL:


Container-based sanitation in urban Haiti: how can it improve human rights as a component of citywide inclusive sanitation? Froggi VanRiper, Kory C. Russel, Daniel Tillias, Jenna Tilt, Jessica Laporte. March 2022. Available for download from H2Open Journal here

Container-Based Sanitation Services and Attrition: An Examination of Drivers and Implications. Froggi VanRiper, Kory C. Russel, Lori A. Cramer, Daniel Tillias, Jessica Laporte, Erica Lloyd, Sasha Kramer. February 2022. Available for download from Frontiers in Environmental Science, section Water and Waste Management here.


Towards Zero Hunger Through Coupled Ecological Sanitation-Agriculture Systems. R. Ryals, E Bischak, K. K. Porterfield, S. Heisey, J. Jeliazovski, S. Kramer, S. Pierre. October 2021. Available for download from Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, section Agroecology and Ecosystem Services here

An evaluation of different provision strategies for scaled-up container-based sanitation. C. Ferguson, A. Mallory, P. Hutchings, C. Remington, E. Lloyd, D. Kiogora, F. Anciano, A. Parker. January 2021. Available for download from H2Open Journal here

The sanitation arc: an alternative examination of WASH behavior change. Froggi VanRiper, Kory C. Russel, Lori A. Cramer, Daniel Tillias, Jessica Laporte, Erica Lloyd, Sasha Kramer. December 2021. Available for download from Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development here.


Sanitation and Climate. M. Reid. June 2020. Available for Download from Nature here

Climate Change Mitigation Potential in Sanitation via Off-site Composting of Human Waste. J. François, R. Ryals, G. McNicol, S. Kramer, J. Jeliazovski. June 2020. Available for download from Nature here.

How cost analysis dispels myths about container-based sanitation. J. Coates, D.Gray. March 2020. Available for download here.

Impact Report: SOIL and Inter-American Development Bank 2016 - 2020 Partnership. View it here.


Taking Container-Based Sanitation to Scale: Opportunities and Challenges. K. Russel, K. Hughes, M. Roach, D. Auerbach, A. Foote, S. Kramer, R. Briceño. November 2019. Available for download here. 

Sanitation Safety Plan. Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods. October 2019. Available for download from World Health Organization here.  

Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Human Waste Management Pathways in Haiti. R. Ryals, G. McNicol, S. Porder, S. Kramer. April 2019. Available for download here. 

Building a Sustainable Citywide Sanitation Service. N. Miller, L. Jean. Sustainable Sanitation Practice. January 2019. Available for download here. 


Process Cost Analysis for the Optimization of a Container Based Sanitation Service in Haiti. C. Remmington, L. Jean, S. Kramer, J. Boys, C. Dorea. WEDC Conference 2018. Available for download here.


Customer Satisfaction with the EkoLakay Household Toilet Service. SOIL, S. Smith. 2017. Available for download here

Bacterial community structure transformed after thermophilically composting human waste in Haiti. Y.M. Piceno, G. Pecora-Black, S. Kramer, M. Roy, F.C. Reid, E.A. Dubinsky, et al. PLoS ONE 2017: 12(6): e0177626. Available for download here.


A social business model for the provision of household ecological sanitation services in urban Haiti. C. Remington, M. Cherrak, N. Preneta, S. Kramer, B. Mesa. WEDC Conference 2016. Available for download here.


Container-based sanitation: assessing costs and effectiveness of excreta management in Cap Haitien, Haiti. S. Tilmans, K. Russel, R. Sklar, L. Page, S. Kramer, and J. Davis. Environment and Urbanization. April 2015: 27: 89-104. Available for download here. 

User perceptions of and willingness to pay for household container-based sanitation services: experience from Cap Haitien, Haiti. K. Russel, S. Tilmans, S. Kramer, R. Sklar, D. Tillias, and J. Davis. Environment and Urbanization. August 2015: 27(1): 1-15. Available for download here.


Piloting ecological sanitation (EcoSan) in the emergency context of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, after the 2010 earthquake. A. Kilbride, S. Kramer, and N.Preneta. WEDC Conference 2013. Available for download here. 

Thermophilic composting of human wastes in uncertain urban environments: a case study from Haiti. S. Kramer, N. Preneta, and A. Kilbride. WEDC Conference 2013. Available for download here.


The SOIL Guide to Ecological Sanitation. Sasha Kramer and Co-authors. SOIL (Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods), 2011. Available in English and Haitian Creole. Available for download here

Can We Sell EcoSan Compost in Haiti? A Market Analysis Report. SOIL, 2011. Available for download here. 



Publications about SOIL:

Evaluating the viability of establishing container-based sanitation in low- income settlements. R.N. Dewhurst, C. Furlong, S. Tripathi, M.R. Templeton, R.E. Scott. July 2019. Available for download here. 

Realizing the Circular Economy for Sanitation: Assessing Enabling Conditions and Barriers to the Commercialization of Human Excreta Derived Fertilizer in Haiti and Kenya. B. Moya, R. Sakabrani, A. Parker. Sustainability Journal. 2019. Available for download here. 

Evaluating the Potential of Container-Based Sanitation. World Bank. 2019. Available for download here. 

Ascaris and Escherichia coli Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. D. Berendes, K. Levy, J. Knee, T. Handzel, and V.R. Hill. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0125336. Available for download here. 

Business Models for Fecal Sludge Management. K.C. Rao, E. Kvarnström, L. Di Mario, and P. Drechsel. CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE), International Water Management Institute (IWMI). 2016. Available for download here. 

Designing the Next Generation of Sanitation Businesses, a report by Hystra. September 2014. More information here

Fostering Water and Sanitation Markets in Latin America and the Caribbean: How the Public Sector Can Support the Private Sector to Bridge Coverage Gaps and Improve Service Quality for Low-Income Populations, D. Sparkman, and G. Sturzenegger. Interamican Development Bank. August 2016. Available online here

Sustainable Sanitation: Fertiliser from Human Waste. M. Sanders. Proceedings of the ICE - Waste and Resource Management 168(3):144 –151. October 2015. Available online here.